Introduction to Software Development Tooling


This is the course website for CS 50: Introduction to Software Development Tooling at Tufts University. This site holds the authoritative syllabus, as well as lecture notes and assignments.

Note: The course staff reserves the right to change this page at any time without notice. The change history is public.


Effective software development requires more than just coding skill: in industry and academia alike, developers use tools to keep their code maintainable and reliable. In this course, you will learn four fundamental categories of tooling: the command line, version control, build systems, and correctness. We’ll dive deep into one industry-standard tool from each category via hands-on projects and exploration of existing codebases, then survey other tools in the same category and discuss why you might choose one over another. By the end of the course, you will have a robust toolset both to manage complexity in your future projects and to effectively ramp up on software projects you encounter in the real world.

We are teaching this course as a series of four modules. The first, Command Line, will give you an overview of the operating system and tools available to you to make your life as a software engineer easier. The second, VCS, will teach you about how to version control your software with Git, so that you may maintain a history of your changes and collaborate with others. The third, Build, will teach you about how to reliably build your software with Make. The fourth and final module, Correctness, will introduce you to testing and other tools for ensuring that your software meets quality standards.


Instructors: Max Bernstein and Tom Hebb
Teaching Assistants: TBD

Office Hours: TBD; extra hours to be announced on Piazza (access via Canvas)
Discussion board: Piazza

Prerequisites: CS 15 or permission of instructor
Equipment: A computer with SSH access to the Tufts homework server
Textbook: none

Lectures: TBD via Zoom (access via Canvas)
Assignments: 8 assignments (2 per module), to be submitted with provide
Exams: none


Note: We will publish notes or slides for each lecture after it happens, but the lecture recordings will not be available to students. If you require access to recordings for your accommodations, please contact us using a private post on Piazza.

Week Tuesday Thursday
1 Sep 7
No class
Sep 9
Course Administrivia & CLI 1: Intro to Linux and the shell
2 Sep 14
CLI 2: Quoting, common tools, and permissions
Homework 1 out
Sep 16
CLI 3: Advanced shell features
3 Sep 21
CLI 4: The shell as a programming language
Sep 23
CLI 5: Behind the scenes
Homework 1 due; Homework 2 out
4 Sep 28
CLI 6: Linux and POSIX
Sep 30
VCS 1: Intro to version control
Homework 2 due (extended to 11:59pm on Oct 2)
5 Oct 5
VCS 2: Git operations
Oct 7
VCS 3: Git operations, continued
Homework 3 out
6 Oct 12
VCS 4: Git operations, continued
Oct 14
VCS 5: Collaboration with Git
Homework 3 due; Homework 4 out
7 Oct 19
VCS 6: Survey of alternative and related tools
Oct 21
BLD 1: Intro to build systems (slides)
Homework 4 due (extended to 11:59pm on Oct 23)
8 Oct 26
BLD 2: Intro to Make (slides)
Oct 28
BLD 3: The Make language
Homework 5 out
9 Nov 2
BLD 4: Compilation and linking + large-scale Make
Nov 4
BLD 5: The great wide world
Homework 5 due; Homework 6 out
10 Nov 9
BLD 6: The great wide world, continued
Nov 11
Veterans’ Day; no class
11 Nov 16
COR 1: Intro to software correctness (slides)
Homework 6 due
Nov 18
COR 2: Philosophy of software testing (slides)
Homework 7 out
12 Nov 23
COR 3: Writing unit tests (slides)
Nov 25
Thanksgiving; no class
13 Nov 30
COR 4: Testing strategies and dependency injection (slides)
Homework 7 due; Homework 8 out
Dec 2
COR 5: Continuous integration
14 Dec 7
COR 6: Other methods for ensuring software correctness
Homework 8 due
Dec 9
15 Dec 14
No class
Dec 16
No class

Course philosophy

This course will consist of 25 lectures (unplanned cancellations notwithstanding) and 8 assignments, spaced evenly throughout the semester. There will be no exams. We’ll use the lectures (accompanied by written lecture notes, assigned readings, and other media) to introduce new material, and we’ll use the assignments to reinforce that material and evaluate your progress.

While we hope you enjoy this course, we will only be present for a small minority of your lifelong learning. Therefore, we have done our best to build assignments and lectures that show you how to find documentation, read code, and carry out small experiments on your own so that you can continue to broaden your knowledge long after this course has ended. We believe this ability is just as important to your success as anything we can teach you directly.

Note: This is a new course, written from scratch and being taught for the first time. Some things might feel rough, slightly out-of-order, or poorly scheduled. When this happens, please let us know on Piazza. Your feedback will help us shape future iterations of the course.

Academic Integrity

You are expected to adhere to Tufts’ Academic Integrity Policy in this course. Plagiarism of code or answers to assignments is strictly prohibited, as is sharing answers with or accepting answers from others.

You are allowed to reference Linux man pages and any open source projects while completing assignments. You are also allowed to read any internet resource, with the exception of material outside this website that explicitly pertains to this course (e.g. assignment solutions accidentally shared by a former student). However, no matter what resources you reference, you must not plagiarise or complete a substantial part of an assignment using someone else’s work, even if you credit that work.

You are, however, allowed to base your answers on information you find online. The purpose of this course is to learn, so if you find a useful resource that clarifies a misunderstanding or explains a tricky topic and in doing so gives you the knowledge you need to complete an assignment, you are welcome to read it (and share it with other students)! You may even copy short snippets of code from examples you find online, given that either 1) you cite your source, or 2) the snippet is something that couldn’t reasonably be implemented any other way (e.g. a call to a Linux API function that we have asked you to use).

To cite your source, leave a reference to it that is enough for the reader to easily find the resource. If the source is a webpage, give the full URL. If the source is a print book, give the title, author, and edition. Use your common sense here.

As a rule of thumb, it’s okay to look for resources to answer specific questions that come up while you are working on an assignment, but it’s not okay to look for resources to avoid having to work on the assignment at all.

In the former case, you may end up copying or retyping small snippets of code from the resources you find. If what you copy has no originality (e.g. if you look up the name of a specific function or command-line flag) and so serves only as an expression of thoughts you already had, no attribution is needed. However, if what you copy affected your thinking about how to go about solving the problem (e.g. by using a command in a way you hadn’t considered before), you should cite your source. Either way, things like this are generally okay and won’t affect your grade.

What’s not okay is copying a function, program, or command that solves a substantial portion of the problem we’ve given you, regardless of whether you attribute it. You are graded on what you bring to the course, and if the course staff believes that you did not bring your own originality and problem-solving skills to an assignment, you will receive a failing grade for that assignment. Additionally, if you don’t attribute the unoriginal code, you will be guilty of plagiarism and the extra consequences that entails.


You will be evaluated 100% on homework assignments. Your final percentage grade will be the average (mean) of your individual grades for each of the 8 assignments. We may decide to adjust (i.e. curve) the grades of any individual assignment if we deem it necessary, and in that case the curved value is what will go into the average. A curve will never decrease your grade for an assignment.

Your final letter grade will be computed from your final percentage grade using the cutoffs outlined here. (We know that’s a math department page, but their scheme closely matches that which most students expect, and the computer science department doesn’t have a recommended set of cutoffs documented anywhere.)

Often on homework assignments we will ask you questions as part of an “investigative” assignment. The purpose of these questions is to guide you through a learning process and teach you how to find things out for yourself. You should explain “why” or “how” in your answers to demonstrate your process. This is similar to “showing your work” for math. For example, if a question asks, “how many files are in the directory?”, we would expect you to say “42. I found the answer with ls -l | wc -l” or similar. Just responding “42” would not be enough.

Submitting assignments

You must submit projects electronically following the instructions given in class. Projects may not be submitted by any other means (e.g., please do not email your projects to us). It is your responsibility to test your program and verify that it works properly before submitting. All projects are due at 11:59pm on the day indicated on the project assignment, according to the submission server’s internal clock. Your project score will be for the last version of the project you submit.

Late policy

You have two late tokens that you can use during the semester. Using one late token allows you to submit one project up to 24 hours late with no penalty. You may also use your two late tokens together to submit one project up to 48 hours late with no penalty. Contact a TA if you need to check the status of your late tokens.


We consulted Ming Chow, Mike Shah, Chris Gregg, Mark Sheldon, Tyler Lubeck, and Lexi Galantino while developing this course.

We borrowed the “Assignments” submission guidelines from Jeff Foster’s CS 121 syllabus.

These similar courses from other institutions inspired elements of this course:

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